In a time when junk food is all too readily available and sedentary lifestyles have become the norm, health conditions such as type 2 diabetes have been dominating the headlines. However, lurking quietly in the background is non-alcoholic fatty liver disease that is rapidly gaining momentum.
For many years liver disease has been associated with drinking too much alcohol (AFLD – alcoholic fatty liver disease) but NAFLD is now the most common liver disorder in the Western world. It affects an estimated one in four individuals. It’s primarily associated with dietary choices and sedentary behavior, making it a major concern for our modern society.
In this post, I discuss the rise of NAFLD, exploring its causes, symptoms, and potential consequences, and why I’m so passionate about raising awareness about this disease.
Understanding the causes and risk factors of NAFLD
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a condition characterized by the accumulation of fat in the liver cells of individuals. While the exact cause of NAFLD is still not fully understood, several risk factors have been identified. These include obesity, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, high cholesterol levels, and high blood pressure.
One of the primary drivers of NAFLD is an unhealthy diet high in processed foods, saturated fats, and added sugars. When we consume excess calories that are not immediately needed for energy, they are converted into triglycerides and stored in the liver as fat. Over time, this excess fat can accumulate and lead to NAFLD. Additionally, sedentary behavior and lack of physical activity can contribute to the development of NAFLD, as regular exercise helps to improve insulin sensitivity and reduce fat accumulation in the liver.
It’s important to note that while obesity is a significant risk factor for NAFLD, not all individuals with NAFLD are overweight. Some individuals may have a normal body weight but still develop NAFLD due to other risk factors such as insulin resistance or genetics. Therefore, it’s crucial to address the underlying causes and risk factors of NAFLD to effectively prevent and manage the condition.
The silent symptoms of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
One of the most challenging aspects of NAFLD is that it often presents with no symptoms in its early stages. The liver is a resilient organ, and it can function normally even when significant fat accumulation has occurred. This makes it difficult to detect NAFLD until it has progressed to more advanced stages or has led to complications.
However, as NAFLD progresses, some individuals may start to experience symptoms such as fatigue, abdominal discomfort, and mild jaundice. These symptoms are often nonspecific and can be attributed to various other conditions, making it challenging to diagnose NAFLD based on symptoms alone. It’s been reported that NAFLD is mostly detected incidentally during routine blood tests or imaging studies for something else unrelated.
It’s important to remember that symptoms alone are not sufficient to diagnose NAFLD definitively. If you experience any concerning symptoms or have risk factors for NAFLD, it’s crucial to consult a healthcare professional for further evaluation and testing.
Diagnosis and testing for NAFLD
Diagnosing NAFLD typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, blood tests, imaging studies, and sometimes liver biopsy. During the clinical evaluation, your healthcare professional will review your medical history, assess your risk factors, and conduct a physical examination. They may ask about your diet, exercise habits, and alcohol consumption to better understand your overall health and potential risk factors for NAFLD.
Blood tests often assess liver function and rule out other liver conditions. These tests may include liver enzyme levels, such as alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST), as well as tests for liver inflammation and fibrosis markers. While blood tests can provide valuable information, they cannot definitively diagnose NAFLD. Imaging studies such as ultrasound, a CT, or MRI may be used to assess the presence of fat in the liver and evaluate the extent of liver damage.
In some cases, a liver biopsy may be recommended to confirm the diagnosis and assess the severity of liver damage. During a liver biopsy, a small sample of liver tissue is taken and examined under a microscope. This procedure is typically performed using a thin needle inserted through the skin into the liver, guided by imaging techniques such as ultrasound.
The link between NAFLD and lifestyle choices
The rise of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) can largely be attributed to our modern lifestyle choices. Sedentary behavior, poor dietary habits, and excess calorie consumption have all contributed to the increasing prevalence of NAFLD.
Sedentary behavior, such as sitting for prolonged periods and lack of physical activity, has been shown to increase the risk of NAFLD. Regular exercise helps to improve insulin sensitivity, increase fat burning, and reduce fat accumulation in the liver. Engaging in at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity or 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity aerobic activity per week, along with muscle-strengthening activities, is recommended for overall health and to reduce the risk of NAFLD.
Dietary choices also play a significant role in the development and progression of NAFLD. A diet high in processed foods, saturated fats, and added sugars can promote fat accumulation in the liver. Consuming excess calories, especially from sugary beverages and high-fat foods, can lead to weight gain and increase the risk of NAFLD. On the other hand, a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and healthy fats has been shown to have a protective effect against NAFLD.
It’s important to note that weight loss, particularly through a combination of dietary changes and increased physical activity, is considered the cornerstone of NAFLD management. Losing as little as 3-5% of body weight can significantly improve liver health and reduce the risk of complications associated with NAFLD. However, it’s essential to approach weight loss in a sustainable and healthy manner, as rapid or extreme weight loss can actually worsen liver health.
Preventing and managing NAFLD through diet and exercise
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is a largely preventable condition, and adopting a healthy lifestyle is key to its prevention and management. Making dietary changes and incorporating regular exercise into your routine can have a significant impact on reducing the risk of NAFLD or improving liver health if you already have the condition.
When it comes to diet, focus on consuming a variety of nutrient-dense foods. Include plenty of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and healthy fats in your meals. Limit your intake of processed foods, saturated fats, and added sugars. Opt for water or unsweetened beverages instead of sugary drinks. Be mindful of portion sizes and practice moderation when enjoying higher-calorie foods.
In terms of exercise, aim for a combination of aerobic activities and strength training. Engage in at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity or 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity aerobic activity per week. Include activities that you enjoy and can sustain in the long term. Additionally, incorporate strength training exercises at least twice a week to build muscle and improve overall body composition.
It’s important to remember that lifestyle changes take time and consistency to yield results. Be patient with yourself and focus on making small, sustainable changes rather than trying to overhaul your entire lifestyle overnight. Seek support from healthcare professionals, registered dietitians, or certified fitness trainers who can provide personalized guidance and support throughout your journey.
The impact of NAFLD on overall health and wellbeing
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) not only affects the liver but can also have far-reaching effects on overall health and well-being. The liver is a vital organ responsible for various crucial functions, and when it is compromised, other body systems can be affected as well.
One of the most significant concerns associated with NAFLD is the potential progression to more advanced stages such as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), liver fibrosis, or cirrhosis. NASH is characterized by liver inflammation and can lead to scarring of the liver tissue. If left untreated, NASH can progress to liver fibrosis, where the liver becomes increasingly scarred and loses its ability to function properly. In severe cases, NAFLD can progress to cirrhosis, a condition where healthy liver tissue is replaced by scar tissue, leading to significant liver dysfunction.
NAFLD has also been linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, including heart attacks and strokes. The excess fat in the liver can contribute to insulin resistance and chronic inflammation, all risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Additionally, NAFLD is closely associated with metabolic syndrome, a cluster of conditions that increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes.
Furthermore, NAFLD has been shown to have implications beyond liver health. Research has suggested potential associations between NAFLD and conditions such as chronic kidney disease, sleep apnea, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and certain types of cancer. While further research is needed to fully understand these relationships, it underscores the importance of addressing NAFLD as part of a comprehensive approach to overall health and well-being.
Why raising awareness around NAFLD is important to me
My Dad was complicated when it came to health. He had a triple heart bypass in his late 40s and then developed type 2 diabetes. He was never one to make many healthy changes to his lifestyle so although he gave up smoking, he still drank alcohol on a regular basis and ate a lot of unhealthy foods.
Looking back when he was diagnosed with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease I don’t think any of us understood how serious it was. And because of his lifestyle to cut a long story short over the years, he ended up getting cirrhosis, which is when your liver is scared and is unable to repair itself. Which then ended up leading to liver cancer. Due to his other conditions, he was not eligible for a transplant.
When your liver is damaged there are some horrible side effects. I mean your liver is one of the major organs in your body and most of us are probably guilty of taking it for granted. My Dad suffered from fluid buildup in his stomach and ankles, itchy skin, and worst of all H.E (Hepatic Encephalopathy). The best way to describe H.E. is a temporary form of Alzheimer’s/Dementia, and I remember my Dad would sometimes remember the episodes he had.
It’s a horrible thing to have and to watch a loved one going through.
I tend to think of NAFLD as a warning. A warning that if you’re diagnosed with it, make changes ASAP and let your liver heal. But even better would be to make healthier lifestyle choices to help reduce your risk of developing it in the first place.
NAFLD can be attributed to several factors, including the increased availability of high-calorie, processed foods and sedentary lifestyles. But our liver is an amazing organ and it has the ability to regenerate unless it’s been scarred permanently. Our modern diet, which is high in sugar, unhealthy fats, and refined carbohydrates, and healthy lifestyle changes can help reduce the risk of developing this disease. You can find some important information on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease from the NHS.